citizenship criteria

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Truth To Tell: Community Connections - White Earth Constitutional Forum Part II

In collaboration with production partner KKWE/Niijii Radio, TruthToTell and CivicMedia/Minnesota traveled west on August 14, 2013, to the White Earth Reservation to air/televise the seventh in our series of LIVE Community Connections forums on critical Minnesota issues. Convened at White Earth's…

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Vine Deloria's Last Video Interview

American Indian author, theologian, historian, and activist Vine Deloria, Jr. (1933-2005) talks with documentary film producer Grant Crowell about traditional Indigenous governance systems and criteria for citizenship, the impact of colonial policies on tribal citizenship (specifically the effects…

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Nisga'a First Nation Circle of Governance

People of the Nisga'a Nation discuss custom and tradition before the Indian Act. They tell how they made the move back to traditional ways through strategic planning and abandoned oppressive ways of the Indian Act.

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Westbank First Nation Circle of Governance

The people of the Westbank First Nation share the history and process taken toward self-governance and how it has transformed their community.

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Developing a First Nation Constitution

Chiefs, Administrators and Advisors discuss the importance of constitutions and the work involved in developing their own nation's constitution. 

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Redefining Tigua Citizenship

Redefining Tigua Citizenship

The materials in this informational guide are designed to provide you with important background information—such as Tigua history, tribal population profiles, and fiscal impacts—related to upcoming membership criteria changes. Project Tiwahu is an Ysleta del Sur Pueblo-wide initiative to…

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A Legal History of Blood Quantum in Federal Indian Law to 1935

A Legal History of Blood Quantum in Federal Indian Law to 1935

The paper traces the development of the use of blood quantum, or fractional amounts of Indian blood to define Indian in federal law up to the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. The paper shows that blood quantum was not widely used in federal law until the twentieth century, as the branches of the…

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An Anishinaabe Tribalography: Investigating and Interweaving Conceptions of Identity During the 1910s on the White Earth Reservation

An Anishinaabe Tribalography: Investigating and Interweaving Conceptions of Identity During the 1910s on the White Earth Reservation

This article explores the varied ways in which the Anishinaabeg of White Earth defined themselves during the early twentieth century. It consists of two primary parts. In part 1 I go beyond the “facts” in order to enliven the (hi)story, to offer an alternative way of remembering the past.  In…

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Members Only? Designing Citizenship Requirements for Indian Nations

Members Only? Designing Citizenship Requirements for Indian Nations

Indian nations' constitutional reform efforts encounter some of their most paralyzing conflicts over criteria for membership. Three years ago, I initiated a Tribal Legal Development Clinic at UCLA, whose purpose has been to assist Indian nations in building their legal infrastructures. This Clinic…

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Special White Earth Constitutional Reform Issue

Special White Earth Constitutional Reform Issue

As the White Earth Nation prepares for a referendum election to approve or reject the proposed constitution, the Reform Committee has implemented a series of citizen engagement activities that includes a special issue of the tribal newspaper to inform citizens of the election date, proposed changes…

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An Essay on the Federal Origins of Disenrollment

An Essay on the Federal Origins of Disenrollment

Disenrollment is not indigenous to Native America. It is a creature of the United States. The origins of disenrollment are traced to the United States’ paternalistic assimilation policies of the 1930s. In 1934 the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act (“IRA”), wherein the federal…

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Race and American Indian Tribal Nationhood

Race and American Indian Tribal Nationhood

This article bridges the gap between the perception and reality of American Indian tribal nation citizenship. The United States and federal Indian law encouraged, and in many instances mandated, Indian nations to adopt race-based tribal citizenship criteria. Even in the rare circumstance where an…

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Navajo Cultural Identity: What can the Navajo Nation bring to the American Indian Identity Discussion Table?

Navajo Cultural Identity: What can the Navajo Nation bring to the American Indian Identity Discussion Table?

American Indian identity in the twenty-first century has become an engaging topic. Recently, discussions on Ward Churchill’s racial background became a “hotbed” issue on the national scene. A few Native nations, such as the Pechanga and Isleta Pueblo, have disenrolled members. Scholars such…

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What is Sustain Oneida?

What is Sustain Oneida?

The population of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin will probably decline within the next 10 years. The Tribe currently faces a diminishing population with an enrollment criteria of 1/4 Oneida blood...

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Understanding the history of tribal enrollment

Understanding the history of tribal enrollment

It's difficult to talk about tribal enrollment without talking about Indian identity. The two issues have become snarled in the twentieth century as the United States government has inserted itself more and more into the internal affairs of Indian nations. Ask who is Indian, and you will get…

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What is Blood Quantum?

What is Blood Quantum?

This article will explore the history of using blood quantum to categorize American Indian identity. The measuring of blood and the concept of 'Indianness' is a complex and difficult subject...