Governance

Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate: Elections Excerpt

Year

ARTICLE V - NOMINATIONS AND ELECTIONS 

SECTION 1. The first election of the Council under this Revised Constitution shall be called, held and supervised by the present Council within one hundred twenty (120) days after its approval. Successful candidates at this first election shall assume office when duly seated at the regular January 1967 meeting of the Council. Where more than two (2) members have filed for an office, a Primary Election shall be held at least thirty (30) days prior to the General Election. Only the two (2) candidates for each office receiving the most votes at such Primary Election or convention shall be eligible to run for office in the General Election. Where no more than two (2) members have filed for an office, a Primary Election will be unnecessary. 

Native Nations
Topics
Citation

Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate Nation. 2006. "Revised Constitution and By-Laws of the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate Nation." Agency Village, SD. 

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe: Distribution of Authority Excerpt

Year

ARTICLE VII - DISTRICT ORGANIZATION

Each district recognized under Article III, Section 2, hereof, may organize local District Councils and elect District officers to consult, make recommendations and advise the Tribal Council, the Superintendent of the Reservation or officer in charge, and the Secretary of the Interior, on all matters of local or tribal interest. The District Councils and officers shall exercise such powers as the Tribal Council may delegate.

Native Nations
Topics
Citation

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe. 1959. "Constitution of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe." Fort Yates, ND. 

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe: Judiciary Functions/Dispute Resolution Excerpt

Year

ARTICLE XII: JUDICIARY
The judicial power of the Tribe shall be vested in one Supreme Court and one Tribal Court. The Judges of both the Supreme Court and the Tribal Court shall initially be appointed by a two-thirds majority vote of the Tribal Council to serve an initial term of office ending on the date of the next regular Tribal election. At that election, a referendum shall be held by all the qualified voters of the Tribe to determine whether each appointed Judge and each other Judge whose term of office expires with the date of that election shall be retained in office. If a Judge is retained in office by a majority of the votes cast, he shall serve a four year term. If a Judge is not retained in office by the voters, the Tribal Council shall appoint a successor and the Judge shall remain in office until his
successor is so appointed and sworn in.

The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this Constitution, customs or the laws of the Tribe, and to any case in which the Tribe, a member of the Tribe, an Indian residing on the Reservation or a corporation or entity owned in whole or in substantial part by any Indian shall be a party.

The Tribal Council shall, by ordinance, establish the minimum qualifications for Supreme Court and Tribal Court Judges. No Judge shall be removed from office except upon written charge of specific misconduct in office, or medical inability to carry out the duties of office, adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the Tribal Council after a hearing with reasonable prior notice to the Judge.

Native Nations
Topics
Citation

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe. 1959. "Constitution of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe." Fort Yates, ND. 

 

Chilkat Indian Village: Citizenship Excerpt

Year

ARTICLE III — MEMBERSHIP
Section 1. Defined: The membership of the Chilkat Indian Village shall consist of the following:
(a) Original members.- All persons whose names appear on the 1940 census roll, prepared in accordance with the Instructions of the Secretary of the Interior for Organization in Alaska, being all the Indians residing in the Village of Klukwan, shall be members of the Village.

(b) Resident Members.- All lineal descendents of persons who were members under section (a), and who are residents of the Village.

(c) At-Large Members: Any lineal descendent of a living, or deceased Member, of the Village who is not a resident of the Village may become an At-Large Member. At-Large Members will be eligible for Tribal Services and other Tribal benefits but will not be allowed to nominate candidates for Village Council, vote in Village elections, or run for elected office in the Village. 
 

Section 2. New Members-
(a) Children of any member, if such children are residents of the Village of Klukwan, shall be members of the Village.

(b) Any American Indian or Alaskan Native who marries, or who is adopted by a Village member through judicial process and becomes a resident of the Village of Klukwan may, upon Council approval, become a member of the Village, provided that person: has been a Village resident for at least one year prior to application for membership, and has applied for Village membership in accordance with the enrollment ordinance.

(c) It shall be the duty of the Council, or their designee to maintain and post an annually updated census roll of the membership of the Chilkat Indian Village. The Council shall provide an opportunity for hearing to any person who objects to his or her inclusion in, or exclusion from the census roll.

Native Nations
Topics
Citation

Chilkat Indian Village. 2006. "Constitution of the Chilkat Indian Village." Klukwan, AK. 

Citizen Potawatomi Nation: Citizenship Excerpt

Year

ARTICLE 3 — MEMBERSHIP OF TRIBE
Section 1. The membership of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation shall consist of the following persons:
(a) All persons of Indian blood who were bona fide members of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation and who were enrolled or were entitled to be enrolled on the official census roll of the Band on January 1, 1937.
(b) Each child of Citizen Potawatomi Nation Indian blood born since the date of said roll whose parents is, or was, a member of the Tribe.
(c) Each child of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Indian blood of a marriage between a member of the Tribe and any other person.
(d) As used in this Article, the term “a member of the Tribe" means a member of the Tribe at the time of the child’s birth, or, in the case of a posthumous child, if membership rights are claimed through the deceased parent, the parent was a member of the Tribe at the time of death.
(e) The burden of proof as to eligibility for membership in the Citizen Potawatomi Nation will be on the claimant for membership in each case.
(f) The Business Committee shall have power to prescribe rules and regulations covering future membership including adoptions and the loss of membership, subject to confirmation by a majority of the votes cast for a General Council referendum containing such rules and regulations in a regular or special election.
(g) No member of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation may hold membership in any other Indian tribe.

Native Nations
Topics
Citation

Citizen Potawatomi Nation. 2007. "Constitution of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation." Shawnee, OK.

Sovereignty and Nation-Building: The Development Challenge in Indian Country Today

Producer
American Indian and Culture Journal
Year

The Indian nations of the United States face a rare opportunity. This is not the occasional business opportunity of reservation legend, when some eager investor would arrive at tribal offices with a proposal guaranteed to produce millions of dollars for the tribe--although such investors still appear, promises in hand. Nor is it the niche economic opportunity of gaming, although that has transformed some tribes' situations in important ways. This opportunity is a political and organizational one. It is a chance to rethink, restructure, reorganize--chance not to start a business or exploit an economic niche but to substantially reshape the future. It is the opportunity for nation-building.

Native Nations
Resource Type
Citation

Cornell, Stephen, Joseph P. Kalt. "Sovereignty and Nation-Building: The Development Challenge in Indian Country Today." Joint Occasional Papers on Native Affairs No. 2003-03. The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development, Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management and Policy, The University of Arizona. Tucson, Arizona. 2003. JOPNA.

Reloading the Dice: Improving the Chances for Economic Development on American Indian Reservations

Year

The experiences of a wide array of societies around the world amply demonstrate that achieving sustained, self-determined economic development is a complex and difficult task. Certainly this is the case on the Indian reservations of the United States, where numerous obstacles face tribal leaders, managers, and other individuals concerned about the economic well-being of their peoples.

Native Nations
Resource Type
Citation

Cornell, Stephen, Joseph P. Kalt. "Reloading the Dice: Improving the Chances for Economic Development on American Indian Reservations". Joint Occasional Papers on Native Affairs No. 2003-02. The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development, Native Nations Insitute for Leadership, Management, and Policy, The University of Arizona. Tucson, Arizona. 2003. JOPNA.

Rights, Governance, and the BC Treaty Process

Producer
BC Treaty Commission
Year

The keynote address given at the BC Treaty Commission Conference for First Nations that discusses the rights, governance and the BC treaty process. Cornell emphasizes the fact that treating making can be more than a process. It can lead to the phenomenal concept of nation building that is sweeping Native nations across the world.

Native Nations
Resource Type
Topics
Citation

Cornell, Stephen. "Forging Linkages & Finding Solutions." A BC Treaty Commission Conference for First Nations. BC Treaty Commission. Vancouver, British Columbia. October 29-31, 2008. Presentation.

Rebuilding Native Nations Builds Leadership

Producer
Indian Country Today
Year

The late Hopi leader Thomas Banyacya once said, “Do not look outside yourself for a leader.” That’s good advice for those with inherent leadership qualities. Now the Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy at the University of Arizona is offering an in-depth program to help people develop their inner leaders.

Rebuilding Native Nations: Strategies for Governance and Development is a comprehensive distance-learning course series that provides students with the opportunity to learn about all the various components of Native nation building from people who are actually doing the on-the-ground work of building their nations. The series examines the critical governance and development challenges facing Native nations and surveys the breadth and diversity of Native nation-building efforts across Indian country...

Native Nations
Resource Type
Citation

Toensing, Gale. "Rebuilding Native Nations Builds Leadership." Indian Country Today Media Network. June 7, 2013. Article. (https://ictnews.org/archive/rebuilding-native-nations-builds-leadership, accessed October 18, 2023)

Chief Oren Lyons Discusses Sovereignty

Producer
Taos News
Year

This is a short interview with Chief Oren Lyons on the issue of sovereignty that was filmed shortly after the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was passed.

People
Resource Type
Topics
Citation

"Chief Oren Lyons Discusses Sovereignty." Taos News. 2007. Interview. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SOw6S_immM4&feature=related, accessed March 22, 2023)