TCUs serve dual missions: educating students and addressing American Indian tribal priorities. Due to this unique status, mainstream ROI metrics fail to fully align with TCU missions. This paper critiques mainstream measures of ROI in the tribal context and provides insights into alternative ROI evaluation methods.
Rainie, S. C., & Stull, G. C. (2016). Reframing return on investments for tribal colleges and universities: Aligning analyses with tribal priorities and educational missions. Philadelphia, PA: Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions.